Griseofulvin : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings

Griseofulvin is an antifungal drug that is used to treat many types of dermatology (ringworm). It has fungal infections of nails and scalp, as well as skin when antifungal creams do not work. It is taken from the mouth.

Common side effects include allergic reactions, nausea, diarrhea, headache, difficulty in sleep, and tired feeling. This is not recommended in people with liver failure or those with porphyria. Use before or after the pregnancy may cause the child to suffer. Griseofulvin works by interfering with fungal mitosis.

Griseofulvin was discovered in 1939 with a type of penicillium mold. This is a list of the World Health Organization’s essential medicines, the most effective and safe medicines required in the healthcare system. The wholesale cost per day in the developing world is US $ 0.05-0.18. In the United States, treatment costs $ 100-200.

Medical Uses
Griseofulvin is used for oral dermatology only. It is ineffective on the top. It is reserved for cases of involvement of nail, hair, or large body surface.

Terbinafine given for 2 to 4 weeks is least effective as it is given for 6 to 8 weeks for the treatment of Trichophyton scalp infection. However, Griseofulvin is more effective than terbinafine for the treatment of Microsporum scalp infection.

Griseofulvin comes in the form of a tablet, capsule, and liquid to take it from the mouth. It is usually taken once a day or can be taken two to four times a day. Although your symptoms may be better in a few days, before you complete the transition, you have to take a long time Griseofulvin. Usually 2 to 4 weeks for skin infection, 4 to 6 weeks for hair and scalp infection, 4 to 8 weeks for foot infection, 3 to 4 months for nail infection, and at least 6 months for toenail infection Is taken for Follow the guidelines on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part that you are not able to understand. Take exactly Griseofulvin according to the instructions. Do not take it too much or take it more often than it has been prescribed by your doctor.

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To mix the drugs evenly, stir the fluid well before each use.

If you feel well then continue to take Griseofulvin. Do not stop taking Griseofulvin without talking to your doctor.

Side Effects
Known side effects of Griseofulvin include:

•  Can reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives because it is a cytochrome P450 enzyme induser
•  Confusion
•  Considered insecure with porphyria
•  Diarrhea
•  Dizziness
•  Fatigue
•  head ache
•  Hives
•  Lack of display of regular activities
•  Liver enzymatic activity reduction
•  Insomnia
•  itching
•  Loss of taste sensation
•  Nausea
•  Oral thrush (oral yeast infection)
•  Mutagen
•  Sensitization of alcohol, with a  disulfiram reaction
•  Phototoxicity
•  skin rashes
•  Stevens-johnson syndrome
•  swelling
•  Paresthesia
•  Upper abdominal pain

Mechanism
The medicine binds to the tubulin, the micro-organism interferes with the verb, thus preventing mitosis. This Keratin binds to carotene in the precursor cells and makes them resistant to fungal infections. The drug only reaches the site of its action when the hair or skin is replaced by the  keratin-griseofulvin Complex.  keratin-griseofulvin then enters dermatophyte through energy-dependent transport processes and binds to fungal microtubules. It changes the processing for mitosis and also changes the underlying information for the fungal wall deposits.

Biosynthetic Process
This fungus is produced industrially by fermenting  Penicillium Griseofulvin.

The first step in the bio-synthesis of Griseofulvin by P. Griseofulvin is the synthesis of the 14-carbon poly-β-keto series via a type I iterative polyketide synthase (PKS) through the recurrence of an Acyl-CoA starter of 6 malonyl-CoA unit. The 14-carbon poly-β-keto range passes through cyclization/aromatization using cyclase/aromatase, respectively, through claisen and adol condensation to make benzophenone intermediate. Benzophenone intermediate is then methylated to produce griseophenone  C. twice through the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). Griseophenone C is then solved in the phenol group on aromatic ring on ortho on active site so that griseophenone B can be formed. halogenated species then passes both oxygen diradical species, a phenol oxidation in both organs. Right oxygen transforms the radical alpha into carbonate through resonance, which allows a stereoscopic radical coupling by the oxygen radical on the left ring that produces a tetrahydrofuranone species. The newly  formed grisan skeleton with a spiro center is then o-methylated by the SAM to produce dehydrogriseofulvin. Eventually, a stereoselective reduction of olefin on the dehydrogriseofulvin by NADPH provides Griseofulvin.

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What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. To check your reaction to Griseofulvin, your doctor will order some laboratory tests.

Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist about any questions you have about filling your prescription. If you have symptoms of infection even after finishing Griseofulvin, call your doctor.

It is important for you to keep a written list of all the prescriptions and over-the-counter medicines as well as any product, such as vitamins, minerals or other dietary supplements. Whenever you go to a doctor or you are admitted to a hospital, you should bring this list with you. There is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

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