Metabolism : Definition, Process, & Biology
Metabolism, the sum of the chemical reactions that occur within each cell of living organisms and provides energy for important processes and provides for synthesizing new organic materials.
Living creatures are unique that they can take energy from their environment and use it to fulfill activities such as movement, development and development, and reproduction. But how do living organisms, their cells, emit energy from their environment, and what cells use this energy to synthesize and collect components?
Answers to these questions lie in the enzyme-mediated chemical reactions that occur in living substances (Metabolism). Consolidated, multilevel reactions consolidated by the energy received from nutrients and / or solar energy, ultimately convert the available materials into the necessary molecules for the development and maintenance.
The physical and chemical properties of the components of the living things dealt with in this article are found in the carbohydrate; Cell; Hormones; Lipid; Photosynthesis; And protein.
A Balancing Act
The process of Metabolism is actually a balanced function that involves two types of activities that run at the same time – by building more body tissues and energy stores and breaking body tissues and energy stores, more fuel for the body’s functions Is generated:
Anabolism is all about the development of new cells, maintenance of body tissues, and energy storage for future use. Supports During anabolism, small molecules are converted into more complex, more complex molecules of carbohydrate, proteins and fats.
Catabolism (pronounced: kuh-TAB-uh-lih-zem), or Destructive Metabolism, is the process that generates the energy necessary for all activities in cells. In this process, cells break large molecules (mostly carbohydrate and fat) to free energy. This energy release provides fuel for anabolism, heats the body, and enables the muscles to contract and move the body. Since complex chemical units are divided into more simple substances, the waste products released in the process of synthesis are removed from the body through the skin, kidneys, lungs and intestines.
Many hormones of the endocrine system are involved in controlling the rate and direction of metabolism. Thyroxine (pronounced: thigh-ROK-seen), a hormone produced by the thyroid (released: thigh-royd) plays an important role in determining how rapid or slow the chemical reactions of metabolism are, Moves forward in the body.
Another gland, pancreas (pronounced: PAN-kree-us) secretes (gives off) that helps determine whether the body’s main metabolic activity at any particular time will be anabolic or synthetic or not. For example, after eating meals, there is usually more anabolic activity because blood glucose levels increase – the most important fuel in the body – in the blood. Pancreatic feels this growing level of glucose and releases hormone insulin (pronounced: IN-suh-lin), which prompts cells to increase their anabolic activity.
Metabolism is a complex chemical process, so it is not surprising that many people think it in its simplest way: something that affects how easily our bodies lose weight or lose weight. This is where calories come in. A calorie is a unit that measures how much energy the body gives to a particular food. A chocolate bar contains more calories than an apple, so it provides more energy to the body – and sometimes it can be a good thing. As soon as the car stores gas in the gas tank, unless the engine is fueled, the body stores calories – mainly as fat. If you fill the gas tank of the car, it spreads on the sidewalk. Similarly, if a person eats too much calories, then he “spreads” on the body as extra fat.
The number of calories burned in a day, how many exercises this person has, is influenced by the amount of fat and muscle in its body, and the basic metabolic rate (BMR) of the person. BMR is the rate at which the body “burns” energy in the form of calories, on the rest BMR can play a role in a person’s tendency to increase weight. For example, a person with lower BMR (which burns less calories while relaxing or sleeping) receives more pounds of body fat over time compared to the person having the same size, which occurs with the average BMR which is the same amount Eats food in and receives the same amount of exercise.
What things affect BMR? To a lesser extent, BMR has been inherited – which is passed through the genes received from our parents. Occasionally, health problems can affect someone’s BMR. But people can change their BMR in some ways. For example: By doing more exercise, one person burns more calories during extra activity and becomes more physically fit, thus enhancing its BMR. BMR is also influenced by the body’s structure – people with more muscle and low fat generally have higher BMRs ….
Things that may be Wrong with Metabolism
Most of the time, your metabolism works without any thought. But sometimes a metabolic metabolic disorder can cause a major catastrophe. Widely, a metabolic disorder is any disease caused by unusual chemical reaction in body cells.
Most of the metabolic disorders are either abnormal levels or problems of enzymes or hormones that work in enzymes or hormones. When the metabolism of body chemicals is blocked or defective, it can cause the production of toxic substances in the body or the lack of substances required for normal body functions, of which none can cause serious symptoms.
Metabolic diseases and conditions include:
Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism is caused by an extremely active thyroid gland. Thyroid hormone releases a lot of thyroxine, so a person’s BMR is high. It causes symptoms such as weight loss, heart rate increase and blood pressure, spread of eyes, and swelling of an increased thyroid (goiter) in the neck. Disease can be controlled through drugs or surgery or radiation therapy.
Hypothyroidism (pronounced: hi-po-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hypothyroidism is caused by a nonexistent or underactive thyroid gland. Thyroid releases very low thyroid, so a person’s BMR is less. Untreated hypothyroidism can cause brain and development problems in infants and children. Hypothyroidism slows down the body’s processes and causes fatigue, slow heart rate, weight gain and constipation. Teens who have this can be treated with oral thyroid hormones.
Inborn errors of Metabolism Metabolic diseases found in the heritage are called inborn errors of metabolism. When babies are born, they are tested. Inborn errors of metabolism,
Galactosemia (there is not enough enzyme in children born with it, which breaks sugar in the milk, called galactose) and
Phenylketonuria (this is caused by a defect in the enzyme that amino acids phenylalanine Breaks up, is essential for normal development and protein production). Inborn errors of metabolism can sometimes cause serious problems if they are not controlled with diet or medication from an early age.
Type 1 Diabetes (pronounced: dye-uh-BEE-teez). Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin and sprinkle. The symptoms of this disease include excessive thirst and peeing, appetite, and weight loss. Over time, the disease can cause pain due to kidney problems, nerve damage, blindness, and heart and blood vessel disease. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes require regular insulin injections and should control their blood glucose levels to reduce the development of diabetes problems.
Type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body can not normally respond to insulin. Symptoms are similar to type 1 diabetes. Many children and teenagers who develop type 2 diabetes are overweight, and it is thought to play a role in their low reaction for insulin. Some adolescents can be successfully treated with dietary changes, exercise and oral medication; Others will need insulin injections. Controlling the level of blood glucose reduces the risk of developing long-term health problems with type 1 diabetes.
Summary of Metabolism
Unity of Life
At the cellular level of the organization, the main chemical processes of all living substances are not the same, if not the same. This is true for animals, plants, fungi, or bacteria; Where there are variations (for example, for example, in the secretion of antibodies by some molds), different processes have variations on common themes. Thus, all living substances are composed of large molecules called proteins, which provide support and coordinated movement, as well as provide storage and transport of small molecules, and in the form of catalysts, chemical reactions fast and special By enabling the light to be capable of light temperature, relatively less concentration, and neutral conditions (i.e., neither acidic nor basic). Proteins are gathered from some 20 amino acids, and as 26 alphabets of alphabet can be assembled in specific ways to make words of different lengths and meanings, so 20 amino-acid “letters” are ten or more May be reduced to join specific proteins. In addition, those parts of protein molecules involved in performing similar functions in different organisms often have sequence similar to amino acids.
There is a common unity among all types of cells, in the way the living organisms preserve their personality and send it to their children. For example, hereditary information is encoded in the specific sequence of the base, which creates DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules in the nucleus of each cell. Only four bases are used in synthesizing DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. As the Morse code consists of three simple signals – a dash, a dot, and a space – in which precise arrangements are sufficient to convey the coded messages, so the exact arrangement of bases in DNA contains information for synthesis and information Given and assemblies of cell components. However, some primitive life forms use DNA instead of DNA as the primary carrier of genetics, using RNA (nucleic acid other than DNA with base uracil instead of sugar ribose and sugar, thymine, from ribonucleic acid; acid, DNA) . Information. Replication of genetic material in these organisms, however, must undergo a DNA phase. With slight exceptions, genetic codes used by all living organisms are identical.
Chemical reactions occurring in living cells are similar. Use of sunlight energy to convert green plants to water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbohydrate (sugars and starch), other organic (carbon) compounds, and molecular oxygen (O2) We do. In the process of photosynthesis requires energy in the form of sunlight, to split a water molecule into an oxygen molecule (O2; oxidizing agent) and two hydrogen atoms (H; reducing agent), in which Separates each one from a hydrogen ion (H +) and an electron. Through a series of oxidation-deficient reactions, the electrons (referred to e-) are transferred from the molecule (oxidation) donating, in this case water, by a series of chemical reactions, to an acceptable molecule; Eventually this “reducing power” can be added to reduce carbon dioxide to levels of carbohydrate. Actually, carbon dioxide accepts hydrogen and builds bonds, carbohydrate (CN [H2O] N).
Living organisms that require oxygen reverse this process: they consume carbohydrate and other organic substances by using oxygen synthesized by plants to create water, carbon dioxide and energy. The process that removes hydrogen atoms (containing electrons) from carbohydrates and passes them into oxygen, is an energy-generating chain of reactions.
In plants, two steps out of the process of converting carbon dioxide into carbohydrates are similar to all steps that synthesize sugars with simple elementary material in animals, fungus and bacteria. Similarly, a series of reactions that takes an initial material and synthesizes some molecules used in some synthetic pathways, are identical or equal between all cell types. From a metabolic point of view, cellular processes occurring in a lion are slightly different from those occurring only in Dandelion.
Organic Energy Exchange
Energy change associated with physical chemistry processes is a sub-discipline of thermodynamics province, physics. The first two laws of the state of thermodynamics, in short, can not be either destroyed or destroyed, and that the effect of physical and chemical changes is to increase the disorder of the universe, or to increase randomness (i.e., entropy) is. Although it can be assumed that biological processes through which organisms grow in highly ordered and complex ways, maintain order and complexity throughout their lives, and pass the instructions for generations to generation – are in violation of these laws It’s not so, so it’s so. Living creatures neither consume nor make energy: they can only convert it from one form to another. From the environment they absorb energy in their useful form; For the environment, they return an equal amount of energy in a biologically less useful form. Useful energy, or free energy, can be defined as the energy capable of working under isothermal conditions (in cases where no temperature difference exists); Free energy is associated with any chemical change. Energy energy less than free energy is usually returned to the environment in the form of heat. Heat can not work in biological systems because all parts of the cells are essentially the same temperature and pressure.
Carrier of Chemical Energy
At any given time, a neutral molecule of water separates into a hydrogen ion (H +) and a hydroxide ion (OH), and the ions are continuously formed in neutral molecules. Under normal conditions (neutrality), the concentration of hydrogen ions (acidic ions) is equal to hydroxide ions (basic ions); Each liter is on the concentration of 10-7 mole, which is described as pH of 7.
All cells are either tied to the membrane or have organs in which there is membrane. These membranes do not allow water ions or ions obtained from water to move out or away from cells or organs. In green plants, the cell’s light is absorbed by chlorophyll and other pigment in the chloroplasts of cells, called the photosynthetic II. As shown earlier, when a water molecule is divided by light energy, then half of the oxygen molecule and two hydrogen atoms (which are two electrons and two hydrogen ions, H +) are different. When excited by sunlight, chlorophyll loses an electron for an electron carrier molecule, but it fixes immediately with the hydrogen atom of the split water molecule, which sends H + into the solution in the process. To make oxygen gas (O2) molecule, two oxygen atoms come together. Free electrons are passed to the photo system I, but in doing so, an additional concentration of positive charge hydrogen ions (H +) on one side of the membrane appears in the chloroplasts, whereas the negative charge produces hydroxide ions (OH-) More on the other hand. Free energy released in the form of H + ions moves forward to equal the concentration of ions through a specific “hole” in the membrane, some biological processes are sufficient to work, such as certain nutrients by bacteria Rotation based propellers of the regeneration and whiplike proteins that enable such bacteria to move. However, it is also important that in this gradient across the membrane, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed from inorganic phosphate (HPO 42-, briefly PI) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is the main carrier of biological use in all forms of life. Interrelationships of energy yield and energy-required metabolic reactions can be considered as large-scale processes which connect couples with ATP breakdown.
Synthesis of ATP by green plants is similar to the synthesis of ATP, which occurs in mitochondria of animals, plants and fungal cells, and occurs in the plasma membrane of bacteria, which use oxygen (or other inorganic electrons, such as nitrate) Accept the electrons by removing hydrogen atoms from the food molecule. Through most of these processes, most of the energy stored in food is released and converted into molecules that fuel life processes. However, it should also be remembered that many living organisms (usually bacteria and protozoa) can not tolerate oxygen; They make ATP from inorganic phosphate and ADP to substrate-level phosphorylation (in addition to the phosphate group), which does not include the establishment and collapse of proton gradients in the membrane. (Such processes are discussed in detail in the synthesis of glucose below.) It should also be noted that life’s fuel and cellular “furnaces” in which they are “burnt” are made of the same type of material: If the fire burns very bright, not only the fuel but furnace is also eaten. Therefore it is necessary to free up energy at a small, separate, easily usable interval. The relative complexity of synthetic pathways (by which food is broken) and the complexity of anabolic pathways (through which the cell components are synthesized) reflect this requirement and provide the possibility of controlling the possibility of simple reaction system On which material travel enzymatic reactions with these sequences.