Tinea Unguium Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

Tinea Unguium, also called Onychomycosis, is a fungal infection of the nail. Symptoms may involve the separation of white or yellow nail discoloration, nail thickness, and nail bedding from the nail bed. Toenails or fingernails can be affected, but it is more common to affect toenails. Complications can include cellulitis of the lower leg.

Many different types of fungi can cause Tinea Unguium, including dermatophots and fusium. Risk factors include athlete’s foot, other nail disease, exposure to a person with condition, peripheral vascular disease, and poor defense work. Diagnosis is usually suspected on the basis of attendance and is confirmed by laboratory testing.

Tinea Unguium does not require the necessary treatment. Antifangal medicine, teribinafine, appears to be the most effective from mouth but is associated with liver problems. It is also useful to trim the affected nails when on treatment. A ciclopirox-containing nail is polished, but it also does not work. After the treatment, situation comes in half the cases. Do not use old shoes after treatment can reduce the risk of recurrence.

It occurs in about 10 percent of the adult population. Old men are often affected. Males are often affected compared to females. Tinea Unguium represents half of half the disease. This was the first time that in 1853 George Massner was determined to be the result of a fungal infection.

Signs and Symptoms
The most common symptom of a fungal nail infection is the nail thickening and distorted: white, black, yellow or green. As the infection progresses, the nail can be brittle, break the pieces or completely away from the toe or finger. If untreated, then the skin around and below the nail can become swollen and painful. Nail beds or skeletal skin may also have white or yellow patches beside the nail, and the smell of a scent can also occur. There is usually no pain or other physical symptoms, unless the disease is serious. People with Tinea Unguium may experience significant psychological problems due to the presence of nails, especially when fingers – which are always visible – are affected by the tunnel.

Dermatophytids fungus are free skin lesions that sometimes occur as a result of fungal infection in the other part of the body. It can take the form of a tooth or itching in one area of ​​the body which is not infected with the fungus. Dermatophytes can be considered as an allergic reaction to fungus.

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Causes
Factors of Tinea Unguium are in all pathogenous fungal empires and include dermatophytes, candida (yeast), and nondermatophytic mold. Dermatophytes are usually responsible fungi for Tinea Unguium in temperate western countries; Whereas Candida and nondermatophytic molds are often included in tropical and sub-tropical with warm and humid climate.

Dermatophytes
Trichophyton Rubrum is the most common dermatology involved in Tinea Unguium. Other dermatophytes that may contain  T.Interdigitale, Epidermophyton Floccosum, T. Violaceum, Microsporum Gypseum, T. Tunsorans, and T. Soudanense. A common outdated name that can still be reported by medical laboratories is Trichophyton mentagrophytes for T. interdigitale. Name T. mentagrophytes are now restricted to the mouse’s favus skin infection agent; Although the fungus can spread from rats and their danders to humans, it usually infects the skin, in the nails.

Other
Other factors include pathogens and candida and nondermatophytic mold, especially mold genus Scytalidium (name has been recently changed to Neoscytalidium), Scopulariopsis and Aspergillus members. Candida species are mainly caused by unhappiness Tinea Unguium in those whose hands are often immersed in water. Scytalidium mainly affects people in the tropics, though it continues even when they later go into the areas of temperate climatic conditions.

Other molds more generally affect people over 60 years of age, and their presence in the nail is weakening in the ability of nail to protect themselves against fungal invasions.

Risk Factors
Due to aging blood circulation, prolonged exposure to fungus and nails that grow slowly and thicker, due to an increase in sensitivity to infection, the most common risk factor for Tinea Unguium is the risk. Nail fungus affects men more often than women, and is associated with family history of this infection.

Other risk factors include heavy sweating, which are in humid or humid environments, wear psoriasis, socks and shoes, which obstruct ventilation and do not absorb sweat, going to knight feet such as swimming pools, Gym and shower room, such as athlete’s foot (tinea pedise), minor skin or nail injury, damaged nails, or other infections, and diabetes, problems of circulation, On issues and legs can cause lower peripheral temperature, or a weakened immune system.

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Diagnosis
Diagnosis is usually suspected on the basis of attendance and is confirmed by laboratory testing. Four main tests are a potassium hydroxide smear, culture, histology examination, and polymer chain reaction. Sample testing is usually nail scrapping or clippings. It is far from the nail as much as possible.

Nail plates with periodic acids appear biopsy – periodic acid-Schiff stain culture or more useful than direct KOH examination. To recognize the reliability of nondermatophyte molds, many samples may be necessary.

Classification
There are four classic types of tinea unguium or Onychomycosis:

•  Distal Subungual Onychomycosis is the most common form of tinea unguium and is usually caused by Trichophyton rubrum, which attacks the nail bed and the bottom of the nail plate.
•  White Surperficial Onychomycosis (WSO) is caused by the fungal invasion of the surface layers of the nail plate to make “White Island” on the plate. It is responsible for about 10 percent of Tinea Unguium cases. In some cases, WSO is a misdiagnosis of “keratin granulation” which is not a fungus, but is the reaction of nail polish, which can cause nails to look chocolate white. To be confirmed a laboratory test should be done.
•  Through the Proximal Subungual Onychomycosis proximal nail fold, there is a fungal entry of newly created nail plate. It is the least common form of tinea unguium in healthy people, but usually when the patient is immunocompromised.
•  Candidal Onychomycosis is the invasion of men in the species of Candida, usually in those people who often immerse their hands in water. This usually requires injuries prior to nail infection or trauma.
Differential Diagnosis
There are actually no fungal infections in many cases of suspected nail fungus, but only nail distortion.

Laboratory confirmation may be necessary to avoid mis-diagnosis in the form of nail bed tumors such as nail psoriasis, life planes, contact skin disease, melanoma, trauma or yellow nail syndrome.

Also Read:  Athlete's Foot: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Other conditions which may appear similar to Tinea Unguium include: Psoriasis, normal aging, yellow nail syndrome, and chronic paronia.

Treatment

Medications
Most of the treatments are either antigenic or with either head or mouth. Avoid the use of antifungal therapy without transition (e.g., terbinafine) without confirmation due to the potential side effects of that treatment.

Topical agents include Ciclopirox nail paints, amorolfine and efinaconazole. Some topical treatments need to be applied on a daily basis for a long time (at least 1 year). The occasional amorolfine is applied weekly. Topical Ciclopirox results in treatment in 6% to 9% of cases; Amorolfine can be more effective. Ciclopirox appears better than an agent alone when used with terbinafine.

Medicines can be taken from the mouth include terbinafine (76% effective), itraconazole (60% effective) and fluconazole (48% effective). They share the characteristics that increase their effectiveness: quick access to nails and nails, and firmness in nails for months of medical shutdown. Ketoconazole is not recommended due to side effects due to side effects. Oral terbinafine is better tolerated than itraconazole. For surface white Tinea Unguium, systematic advice is given instead of topical antifungal therapy.

Who should be treated for fungal nails?
Patients with pain and inconvenience due to nail changes are advised to treat Tinea Unguium as medical treatment. The treatment of cellulitis (soft tissue infections) near patients with high risk factors for infection like diabetes and affected nails can also benefit from treatment. Bad cosmetic appearance is another reason for medical treatment.

What Experts Treat Nail Fungus?
There are many doctors who can provide nail fungus treatment. Your primary care provider, dermatologist, or a podiatrist can treat nail fungus. None of these doctors can provide proper diagnosis and can write specific medicines for fungal infections. A podiatrist or dermatologist may shave the top layer of the nail or remove the nail part too.

One thought on “Tinea Unguium Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

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